Monday, September 22, 2008



It is known that blood is vitally important in the treatment of sick human of sick human for different conditions such as surgery, accident and delivery cases, treatment of different diseases etc. Till now artificial blood is still in research laboratories and as such there is no substitute for blood. We can say that blood is natural gift for patients in need of it because they can't survive without it. Blood transfusion is needed in medical science as it can play a life-saving role in the treatment of thousands of patients in clinical medicine daily.

1. Use of Blood
  • Surgery
  • Accidents
  • Delivery cases
  • Bleeding cases such as peptic ulcer, liver diseases, lungs diseases etc
  • Bleeding Disorders
  • Cancer cases
  • Blood diseases such as haemophilia, anemia, thalassemia
  • New bornbaby with blood diseases
  • Burn cases etc.
2. Blood

Blood is a red liquid substance which is circulating contoniously in the body through the heart, arteries and veins. Blood is made up of cells and liquid plasma.
Blood cells: 45%
WBC - Neutrophil, Eosinophil, Basophil, Monocyte, Lymphocyte
Liquid plasma - 55%
Plasma contains the following substances
- Water
- Minerals
- Other chemical elements, protein (albumin, globulin, fibrinogen and clottings factors).

3. Formation and destruction of blood

Blood circulates in blood vessels through heart and finally destroyed in spleen. Iron, folic Acid and other vitamins are important for formation of blood which is available on foods which we take. In fetus and neonates blood formation takes place in liver and spleen.

4. Life Span of blood

RBC: 120 days
WBC: Few hours to 1 week
Platelets: Few Days.
Formation of new blood and destruction of old – this process continues in our body. In bleeding cases and blood donation cases, it will follow this process. Even if we don’t donate blood, it will destroy according to life span of blood in our body.

5. Blood Group

According to scientific research purposes there are 500 types of blood groups but there are two main significant groups of concern in blood transfusion.
a) ABO group – A, A, AB, O
b) Rh group – Negative and positive

6. Function of Blood

i) RBC carries O2 from lungs to tissues and Co2 from tissues to lungs.
ii) WBC protects our body from foreign bodies including diseases causing micro organism.
iii) Platelets help in blood clotting
iv) Clotting factors help blood to clot to stop bleeding.
v) There are many important substances in blood which are essential for life and which it carries to different parts of the body.
vi) Without blood brain can survive only for 4 minutes and heart can survive only for 6 hours.

7. Amount of blood

Male: 76ml/kg in body
Female: 66 ml/kg in body
Male or female: for daily work only 50 ml/kg blood is required.
Likewise in male 26 ml blood is excess per kg in the body and in female 16 ml blood is excess per kg. A healthy person can give easily around 8 ml per kg body weight in blood donation. For donation minimum wt. is 45 kg and if with that weight a person gives blood it will be 45 X 8 ml blood = 360 ml, which is excess blood for that person. Minimum blood taken in blood donation is 350ml in single bag in our country.

8. Who can donate blood?

From 18 years and up to 60 years
Weight: Above 45 kg.
Hemoglobin: above 12 gm%
Blood pressure: 110-160 / 70-95 mmHg.
Healthy persons without any problem with liver, lungs and heart diseases like jaundice, malaria, typhoid, HIV/AIDS and not using medicines. There should be 3 months gap after previous blood donation.

9. Who can’t donate blood?

Persons with diseases like fits, TB, venereal diseases, diabetes, asthma, high BP, kidney diseases, heart diseases, AIDS, using medicines, havening sexual contacts with many person and drug addicts. Women in menstruation till 8 days, breast feeding mother and pregnant women can’t donate blood.

10. Time taken in blood donation

Time during of blood donation is 5-7 minutes. After donation it better to take 5 minutes rest in chair and then take one glass of liquid with some light food. After donation up to 3 hours, it is better not to smoke and to take other drugs. After donation liquid part will be replaced within an hour and others will slowly replaced within a few days. It is not necessary to have any special diet after blood donation.

11. What we can get after donation?

Giving blood is to save life of patients, it can give self satisfaction. A volunteer donor can get blood easily from the blood bank whenever he/she needs blood for his/her own self and family members if there is sufficient blood in BTC but BTC always gives priority to emergency cases. NTCS BTC thanks all voluntary donors.

12 What is necessary when donation is out of BTC?

Time and date need to be fixed for blood donation in contact with BTC, even if it is already fixed in the calendar. If donation program is out of BTC there must be a minimum of 50 blood donors enlisted to donate blood.

13. Public participation in blood program is increasing and at the same time the demand of blood is also increasing. Blood donation to save life is a humanitarian endeavor. For this reason motivation to donate blood needs to be stressed. For these humanitarian efforts of NRCS the role of organizations like Blood Donors Association of Nepal can be very complementary.

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