Monday, September 22, 2008



It is known that blood is vitally important in the treatment of sick human of sick human for different conditions such as surgery, accident and delivery cases, treatment of different diseases etc. Till now artificial blood is still in research laboratories and as such there is no substitute for blood. We can say that blood is natural gift for patients in need of it because they can't survive without it. Blood transfusion is needed in medical science as it can play a life-saving role in the treatment of thousands of patients in clinical medicine daily.

1. Use of Blood
  • Surgery
  • Accidents
  • Delivery cases
  • Bleeding cases such as peptic ulcer, liver diseases, lungs diseases etc
  • Bleeding Disorders
  • Cancer cases
  • Blood diseases such as haemophilia, anemia, thalassemia
  • New bornbaby with blood diseases
  • Burn cases etc.
2. Blood

Blood is a red liquid substance which is circulating contoniously in the body through the heart, arteries and veins. Blood is made up of cells and liquid plasma.
Blood cells: 45%
WBC - Neutrophil, Eosinophil, Basophil, Monocyte, Lymphocyte
Liquid plasma - 55%
Plasma contains the following substances
- Water
- Minerals
- Other chemical elements, protein (albumin, globulin, fibrinogen and clottings factors).

3. Formation and destruction of blood

Blood circulates in blood vessels through heart and finally destroyed in spleen. Iron, folic Acid and other vitamins are important for formation of blood which is available on foods which we take. In fetus and neonates blood formation takes place in liver and spleen.

4. Life Span of blood

RBC: 120 days
WBC: Few hours to 1 week
Platelets: Few Days.
Formation of new blood and destruction of old – this process continues in our body. In bleeding cases and blood donation cases, it will follow this process. Even if we don’t donate blood, it will destroy according to life span of blood in our body.

5. Blood Group

According to scientific research purposes there are 500 types of blood groups but there are two main significant groups of concern in blood transfusion.
a) ABO group – A, A, AB, O
b) Rh group – Negative and positive

6. Function of Blood

i) RBC carries O2 from lungs to tissues and Co2 from tissues to lungs.
ii) WBC protects our body from foreign bodies including diseases causing micro organism.
iii) Platelets help in blood clotting
iv) Clotting factors help blood to clot to stop bleeding.
v) There are many important substances in blood which are essential for life and which it carries to different parts of the body.
vi) Without blood brain can survive only for 4 minutes and heart can survive only for 6 hours.

7. Amount of blood

Male: 76ml/kg in body
Female: 66 ml/kg in body
Male or female: for daily work only 50 ml/kg blood is required.
Likewise in male 26 ml blood is excess per kg in the body and in female 16 ml blood is excess per kg. A healthy person can give easily around 8 ml per kg body weight in blood donation. For donation minimum wt. is 45 kg and if with that weight a person gives blood it will be 45 X 8 ml blood = 360 ml, which is excess blood for that person. Minimum blood taken in blood donation is 350ml in single bag in our country.

8. Who can donate blood?

From 18 years and up to 60 years
Weight: Above 45 kg.
Hemoglobin: above 12 gm%
Blood pressure: 110-160 / 70-95 mmHg.
Healthy persons without any problem with liver, lungs and heart diseases like jaundice, malaria, typhoid, HIV/AIDS and not using medicines. There should be 3 months gap after previous blood donation.

9. Who can’t donate blood?

Persons with diseases like fits, TB, venereal diseases, diabetes, asthma, high BP, kidney diseases, heart diseases, AIDS, using medicines, havening sexual contacts with many person and drug addicts. Women in menstruation till 8 days, breast feeding mother and pregnant women can’t donate blood.

10. Time taken in blood donation

Time during of blood donation is 5-7 minutes. After donation it better to take 5 minutes rest in chair and then take one glass of liquid with some light food. After donation up to 3 hours, it is better not to smoke and to take other drugs. After donation liquid part will be replaced within an hour and others will slowly replaced within a few days. It is not necessary to have any special diet after blood donation.

11. What we can get after donation?

Giving blood is to save life of patients, it can give self satisfaction. A volunteer donor can get blood easily from the blood bank whenever he/she needs blood for his/her own self and family members if there is sufficient blood in BTC but BTC always gives priority to emergency cases. NTCS BTC thanks all voluntary donors.

12 What is necessary when donation is out of BTC?

Time and date need to be fixed for blood donation in contact with BTC, even if it is already fixed in the calendar. If donation program is out of BTC there must be a minimum of 50 blood donors enlisted to donate blood.

13. Public participation in blood program is increasing and at the same time the demand of blood is also increasing. Blood donation to save life is a humanitarian endeavor. For this reason motivation to donate blood needs to be stressed. For these humanitarian efforts of NRCS the role of organizations like Blood Donors Association of Nepal can be very complementary.

Sunday, September 21, 2008


Traditional Mask dancerIt is a well known fact that Hinduism and Buddhism are the two major Kumari at Indra Jatra festivalreligions of Nepal, each having it's own rules and rituals. However, like most festivals of Nepal, both Hindus and Buddhist unite to celebrate the festival of Indra Jatra. This festival is celebrated by both Hindus and Buddhists with great enthusiasm. It is also believed that Indra Jatra is a festival of classical dances. It is on this very day when one is able to observe numerous varieties of traditional dances. The festival is named after Lord Indra who is known as the god of rain and also as the king of heaven.
Street music during Indra JatraThe festival of Indra Jatra continues for eight days with much rejoicing, singing, dancing and feasting. People from all over Nepal, mostly those who live within the Kathmandu Valley, gather at the Hanuman Dhoka in Kathmandu. The first day of the festival is viewed by a large number of people. On that day, a long wooden pole is erected in front of the ancient Royal Palace at Hanuman Dhoka, in order to propitiate Lord Indra, the"god of rain". Classical dancers also assemble at the spot, wearing different kinds of traditional masks and costumes and dancing around the courtyard of Hanuman Dhoka to celebrate Indra's visit.
On the third day of the festival of Indra Jatra, the living goddess Kumari is taken out in a procession in a chariot. "Kumari", the "living goddess", is considered to be an incarnation of the goddess "Taleju". Chariots of Kumari, Ganesha and Bhairav are taken around the city for three days. According to Hindu beliefs Ganesha is the son of Shiva and Parvati who has a head of an elephant and Bhairav is another form of Lord Shiva himself.
The king of Nepal, the only Hindu king in the world, also pays homage to the Kumari during this period. The festival's many interesting dances, including the Procession of Living Goddess-Mahakali, Mahalaxmi and Dasha Avatara masked dances are staged in Kathmandu Durbar Square, near the Kumari Temple. The "Dasha Avatara" refers to the ten incarnations of Lord Vishnu who is one of the Hindu's Holy trinity. The excitement of the festival of Indra Jatra comes to an end on the last evening of the festival when the long wooden pole erected on the first day is lowered with religious ceremonies, animal sacrifices and ritual gestures.


Given below is information regarding what rituals take place on each of the day.
Day 1-2
A long wooden pole is placed in front of the Royal Palace at Hanuman Dhoka, in order to propitiate Lord Indra. Classical dancers also gather at the spot, wearing different kinds of traditional attires. They dance around the courtyard of Hanuman Dhoka to celebrate God Indra's arrival.Day 3-6
On the third day of the festival of Indra Jatra, the living goddess Kumari ventures out in a chariot in the procession. Kumari, is said to be an incarnation of the goddess Taleju. Chariots of Kumari, Ganesha and Bhairav move around the city for three days. According to Hindu faith Ganesha is the son of Lord Shiva and Goddess Parvati. He is believed has the head of an elephant. Bhairav is one of the forms of Lord Shiva.

Day 7
The King of Nepal, the only Hindu monarch in the world, also pays homage to the Kumari during this period. Intriguing dances are staged in Kathmandu Durbar Square, in the neighborhood of the Kumari Temple. 'Dasha Avataras' are also enacted by the artists. The 'Dasha Avataras' refer to the ten incarnations of Hindu Lord Vishnu who is one of the Hindus' Holy trinity, the supreme powers.

Protest Against Finance Minister Babu Ram Bhattarai for discontinuing finance for Indra Jatra (Sept. 21, 08')